By B. Guy Peters
Very important additions to this 10th variation contain improved discussions of coverage tools, the demanding situations for public policymakers offered via the ongoing gridlock in Washington, the cheap Care Act, better schooling investment, reproductive rights, and homosexual rights. New insurance of fracking controversies, race and racial profiling, and the legalization of marijuana retains scholars modern with contemporary coverage debates and matters. New to this version: *The 10th version contains accelerated and up-to-date discussions of *policy tools; *gridlock in Washington and the demanding situations for public coverage makers; *continuing responses to the 2008 monetary drawback; *the cheap Care Act; *higher schooling investment and the scholar debt drawback; *reproductive rights; and *gay rights. *New to the quantity is a overview of fracking controversies and attendant alterations in power rules, problems with race and racial profiling in legislation enforcement coverage, and the legalization of marijuana. *Updated tables and charts verify scholars have entry to the most recent info within the box and new photographs illustrate details.
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Extra resources for American Public Policy: Promise and Performance
This is especially true in the United States because of the traditional reluctance of American government to expand the public sector, at least by conscious choice. For example, the federal government's intervention in medical-care financing for individuals in the Medicare and Medicaid programs was dangerously close to the much-feared "socialized medicine:' It was made more palatable, however, at least for Medicare, by making the program similar to Social Security, which had already been legitimated.
Therefore, cutting the size of government will be hard indeed. Summary American government in the 198os is large, complex, and to some degree unorganized. Each individual section of that government, be it a local government or an agency of the federal government, tends to know what it wants, 31 PART ONE: THE NATURE OF PUBLIC POLICY but the system as a whole is somewhat disorganized and lacking in overall coordination and control. An elected official coming into office and attempting to give direction to the system of government may well be disappointed by his or her ability to produce any desired results, by the barriers to success, and by the ways in which the probability of success can be increased.
It is only when a problem is placed on the agenda and made available for discussion that the forces of change have any opportunity. The second kind of agenda that Cobb and Elder discuss is the institutional agenda-''that set of items explicitly up for active and serious consideration of authoritative decision-makers:' 5 An institutional agenda is then composed of the issues that those in power actually are considering acting on. These issues may constitute a subset of all the problems they will discuss, as the latter set will include "pseudo issues;' discussed just to placate clientele groups but without any serious intent to make policy choices.
American Public Policy: Promise and Performance by B. Guy Peters